[104][105][106][107][108] In addition, the country is connected to the virtual meetme room services (vmmr)[109] of the international data hub operator Ancotel. The National Museum of Military History (MNHM) in Diekirch is especially known for its representations of the Battle of the Bulge. Of Luxembourg’s roughly 571,000 inhabitants, about 100,000 live in Luxembourg City. – in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green), Luxembourg (/ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/ (listen) LUK-səm-burg;[8] Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg [ˈlətsəbuːə̯ɕ] (listen); French: Luxembourg; German: Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg,[c] is a landlocked country in Western Europe. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP (PPP) per capita. [85], As of 2019[update], public debt of Luxembourg was at $15,687,000,000, or a per capita debt of $25,554. [citation needed], Luxembourg was a founding participant of the Eurovision Song Contest, and participated every year between 1956 and 1993, with the exception of 1959. [17][18] Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage, war and vassal relations. [72] In 2011, according to the IMF, Luxembourg was the second richest country in the world, with a per capita GDP on a purchasing-power parity (PPP) basis of $80,119. Luxembourg has one of the fastest-growing population rates. What cities are in Hendry County, Where is Hardee County Florida? What cities are in Lake County, Where is Jackson County Florida? After the decline of the steel industry in the 1970s, the country focused on establishing itself as a global financial centre and developed into the banking hub it is reputed for. The border between Luxembourg and Germany is formed by three rivers: the Moselle, the Sauer, and the Our. What cities are in Manatee County, Where is Levy County Florida? [132], German is very often used in much of the media along with French. [44] While Prussian troops still manned the fortress, in 1861, the Passerelle was opened, the first road bridge spanning the Pétrusse river valley, connecting the Ville Haute and the main fortification on the Bock with Luxembourg railway station, opened in 1859, on the then fortified Bourbon plateau to the south. During the past decades, growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel production. Countries Close to Luxembourg: Belgium: 140.8 km / 87.5 miles: Countries Nearby: Netherlands: 264.1 km / 164.1 miles: Countries Nearby: Germany: 340.3 km / 211.5 miles: Countries Nearby: Switzerland: ], Luxembourg is described as a "full democracy",[51] with a parliamentary democracy headed by a constitutional monarch. It is dominated by hills and low mountains, including the Kneiff near Wilwerdange,[64] which is the highest point, at 560 metres (1,837 ft). It has a population of just over half a million people (563,000 in 2015), and is the 20th smallest of the world’s 194 independent countries. [citation needed], With $171 billion in May 2015, the country ranks eleventh in the world in holdings of U.S. Treasury securities. What cities are in Indian River County, Where is Holmes County Florida? An area of the (now extinct) commune of Hollerich was conferred the title on 7 April 1914, under the title of 'Hollerich-Bonnevoie'; this status was lost when Hollerich was merged into Luxembourg City on 26 March 1920. Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was gradually built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. [158] There are some 30 registered production companies in Luxembourg. What cities are in New London County, Where is New Haven County Connecticut? [97][98][99][100], Luxembourg is connected to all major European Internet Exchanges (AMS-IX Amsterdam,[101] DE-CIX Frankfurt,[102] LINX London),[103] datacenters and POPs through redundant optical networks. Six data centers are Tier IV Design certified: three of ebrc,[117] two of LuxConnect[118][119] and one of European Data Hub. [65] In 2020 the country was ranked second out of 180 countries[66] Luxembourg also ranks 6th among the top ten most livable cities in the world by Mercer's. [citation needed], Luxembourg is the site of the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Court of Auditors, the Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) and other vital EU organs. LuxemburgsSprachenmarkt in Wandel, Luxembourg, SESOPI, 2009, Les langues dans les offres d'emploi au Luxembourg (1984-2014), Université du Luxembourg, IPSE Identités, Politiques, Sociétés, Espaces, Working Paper, Juin 2015, "Field Listing – Distribution of family income – Gini index", Learn how and when to remove this template message, German occupation of Luxembourg during World War II, referendum on the EU treaty establishing a constitution for Europe, National Museum of Military History (MNHM), List of Luxembourgish Sportspeople of the Year, 2007 Women's European Volleyball Championship, Plan d'action national luxembourgeois en matière de TIC et de haut-débit, CEE- Europe's Digital Competitiveness Report –Volume 2: i2010 –ICT Country Profiles- page 40-41, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019", "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income - EU-SILC survey", "Europe :: Luxembourg — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency", "Decision of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States on the location of the seats of the institutions (12 December 1992)", Centre virtuel de la connaissance sur l'Europe, "What languages do people speak in Luxembourg? Luxembourg is one of the most organized and well-maintained cities in the world. The border runs for a total of 91 miles and includes 507 border markers. However, despite a recent increase in the production of novels in the language, it is seldom used as written language, and the numerous expatriate workers (approximately 60% of the population) also generally do not use it to speak to each other. What Country is Budapest in? As a cultural platform, it abounds in venues for artistic expression, such as museums, theatres and concert halls. Its spectacular valleys and plateaus led it to be nicknamed the "Gibraltar of the North". The southern portion of the borderline begins at the intersection of the national borders of France, Belgium, and Luxembourg and ends in the north at the intersection of the borders of the countri… According to a 2005 Eurobarometer poll,[138] 44% of Luxembourg citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", whereas 28% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force", and 22% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force". The newspaper with the largest circulation is the German-language daily Luxemburger Wort. Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, NATO, OECD, the United Nations, Benelux, and the Western European Union. Yes, Luxembourg is a democratic country. The southern two-thirds of the country is called the Gutland, and is more densely populated than the Oesling. [32], The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc[34] (today Luxembourg Castle) situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, in 963 through an exchange act with St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier. What cities are in Windham County, Where is Tolland County Connecticut? What cities are in Flagler County, Where is Duval County Florida? ", "MAE – Luxembourg City in the top 10 of the most "livable" cities / News / New York CG / Mini-Sites", "LUX MUST "REDOUBLE ITS EFFORTS" TO MEET CLIMATE TARGETS: OECD", "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material", World Economic Outlook Database-April 2012, "Luxembourg makes progress in OECD standards on tax information exchange", "A progress report on the jurisdictions surveyed by the OECD Global Forum", "Kim Jong-il $4bn emergency fund in European banks", "How one word change lets Amazon pays less tax on its UK activities", "Embargo 4 October 0.01 AM Central European Times", "Luxembourg tax files: how tiny state rubber-stamped tax avoidance on an industrial scale", "Major foreign holders of treasury securities", "What are the problems of geographic attribution for securities holdings and transactions in the TIC system? [12] In 2019, Luxembourg had a population of 626,108, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe,[13] but by far the one with the highest population growth rate. While Luxembourg is tiny in comparison with many of the European heavyweights – it’s incredibly attractive to expats. There were an estimated 5,000 illegal immigrants in Luxembourg in 1999.[127]. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the county to the Duchy of Luxembourg. [38][39][40][41], At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, and by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. The Minister for Defence, François Bausch, oversees army operations. [46], At the time of the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, despite allegations about French use of the Luxembourg railways for passing soldiers from Metz (then part of France) through the Duchy, and for forwarding provisions to Thionville, Luxembourg's neutrality was respected by Germany, and neither France nor Germany invaded the country. According to the 2012 Environmental Performance Index, Luxembourg is one of the world's best performers in environmental protection, ranking 4th out of 132 assessed countries. Most official business and written communication is carried out in French, which is also the language mostly used for public communication, with written official statements, advertising displays and road signs generally being in French. [61], Luxembourg has participated in the Eurocorps, has contributed troops to the UNPROFOR and IFOR missions in former Yugoslavia, and has participated with a small contingent in the NATO SFOR mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina. [citation needed] After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresa, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon. [19] In 1308, Count of Luxembourg Henry VII became King of the Germans and later Holy Roman Emperor. [82], Agriculture employed about 2.1% percent of Luxembourg's active population in 2010, when there were 2200 agricultural holdings with an average area per holding of 60 hectares. Located in Southern Luxembourg, at the confluence of Alzette and Petrusse Rivers, Luxembourg –City is the national capital, the largest city and the most populous … ", "The Regularisation of Unauthorised Migrants: Literature Survey and Country Case Studies – Regularisation programmes in Luxembourg", "Parlement européen – Lëtzebuergesch léieren (FR)", "Table: Religious Composition by Country, in Percentages | Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project", Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005, "The Trilingual Education system in Luxembourg", "Immigration in Luxembourg: New Challenges for an Old Country", "Arrêté ministériel du 29 août 2017 portant accréditation de " Luxembourg School of Business " (LSB) en tant qu'établissement d'enseignement supérieur spécialisé et du programme d'études à temps partiel " Master of Business Administration " (MBA) offert par l'établissement précité. [140] In addition to the three national languages, English is taught in compulsory schooling and much of the population of Luxembourg can speak English. Retrieved on 25 January 2013", "Household Download Index. The Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation. Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. [28][29] The city of Luxembourg, which is the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Citi strives to create the best outcomes for our clients and customers with financial solutions that are simple, creative and responsible. In early November 2014, just days after becoming head of the European Commission, the Luxembourg's former Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker was hit by media disclosures—derived from a document leak known as Luxembourg Leaks—that Luxembourg under his premiership had turned into a major European centre of corporate tax avoidance. What Country is Dnipropetrovsk in? [120] In a survey on nine international data centers carried out in December 2012 and January 2013 and measuring availability (up-time) and performance (delay by which the data from the requested website was received), the top three positions were held by Luxembourg data centers. Luxembourg is one of the richest cities in the world. Moreover, the Luxembourg government has aimed to attract Internet start-ups, with Skype and Amazon being two of the many Internet companies that have shifted their regional headquarters to Luxembourg. The s-shaped borderline between Luxembourg and Belgium was established in 1839 but didn’t take its current form until 1919. What cities are in Osceola County, Where is Orange County Florida? Due to the historical influence of the Napoleonic Code on the legal system of the Grand Duchy, French is also the sole language of the legislation and generally the preferred language of the government, administration and justice. There are several notable museums, located mostly in the capital. This enabled Germany to use the railway lines, while at the same time denying them to France. With a population of 626,108 people, Luxembourg is one of the least populated countries in Europe. There are places to visit throughout the city. [citation needed], In August 1914, Imperial Germany violated Luxembourg's neutrality in the war by invading it in the war against France. administrative or judicial decisions, passports etc.) [37] This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned. The northern third of the country is known as the Oesling, and forms part of the Ardennes. For the city, see, • Independence in personal Union with the Netherlands (, Interactive map showing the border of Luxembourg. A government in exile based in London supported the Allies, sending a small group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasion. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Vienna named world’s best city … What cities are in Orange County California. [49] In contrast to the First World War, under the German occupation of Luxembourg during World War II, the country was treated as German territory and informally annexed to the adjacent province of the Third Reich, Moselland. What cities are in Middlesex County, Where is Litchfield County Connecticut? istanbulda gezilecek yerler. - Legilux", "Home | John E. Dolibois European Center | Miami University", "World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe", "Overview of the Healthcare System in Luxembourg", "Luxembourg and Greater Region, European Capital of Culture 2007", "Environmental Report for Expo 2010 Shanghai China", "Luxembourg pavilion at the World Expo 2010 Shanghai", "Luxembourg pavilion displays green heart of Europe", "World/Global Alcohol/Drink Consumption 2009", "Consommation annuelle moyenne d'alcool par habitant, Catholic Ministry of Health", "Luxembourgish Film Production Companies", The Official Portal of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, Orders, decorations, and medals of Luxembourg, Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe, autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark, Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Luxembourg&oldid=1004302535, French-speaking countries and territories, German-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean, NUTS 1 statistical regions of the European Union, NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union, States and territories established in 1815, Articles containing Luxembourgish-language text, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with German-language sources (de), CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles needing additional references from December 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2020, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2015, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Officially the Republic of China, participates as ", This page was last edited on 1 February 2021, at 23:41. 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