At the age of 12, Francis started working at the local lumber camps and fishing stations. and suffered from chest pains for the rest of his life. I wore it in the trenches.” Pegahmagabow and Francis also indicated his year of birth as 1891, although provincial commemorative plaques and some historical sources place his year of birth as 1889. Thanks for contributing to The Canadian Encyclopedia. By 1916, however, as casualties rose overseas and the Canadian Expeditionary Force became increasingly desperate for volunteers, Indigenous soldiers (particularly Treaty Indians like Francis Pegahmagabow) were encouraged to enlist. Francis was Our team will be reviewing your submission and get back to you with any further questions. He died of a heart attack at the age of 61, in 1952. Frustrated by the government’s treatment of Indigenous peoples and veterans, Francis became involved in local and federal politics. Koennecke, F., Francis Pegahmagabow (2020). Owl eyes allow for superb sight. Francis Pegahmagabow from Canada National Archives. Francis Pegahmagabow (1889-1952), an Ojibwe of the Caribou clan, wasborn in Shawanaga First Nation, Ontario. H His father was a man of the First Nation and his mother of the First Nation, located further up Georgian Bay's north shore. From behind the front lines, Francis slowly made his way into No Man’s Land at night, where he waited for German soldiers In January 1912, Francis received the financial aid he sought and began Despite his serious injuries, he soon returned to action and received a second bar to his Military Medal following his valorous actions at the Battle of the Scarpe in August 1918. H [17] Honoured by the Canadian Forces by naming the 3rd Canadian Ranger Patrol Group HQ Building at CFB Borden after him. When he signed his Attestation Paper (all soldiers had to fill out forms stating their date and place of birth, weight, occupation, etc.) He enlisted with the Canadian Expeditionary Force at Valcartier, Quebec, on September 15, 1914. [9], On November 6/7, 1917, Pegahmagabow earned a Bar to his Military Medal for his actions in the Second Battle of Passchendaele. He is the most decorated Indigenous soldier in Canadian military history and holds the record of Canada’s top marksmen with 378 kills. He of the Parry Island Band, now known as Wasauksing First Nation, and a band councillor from 1933 to 1936. Other sources have given Pegahmagabow's birth year as 1888 or 1891. He was taught to hunt and fish and was also introduced to traditional medicine by his foster mother. They had travelled the world, earned the respect of the comrades in the trenches, and refused to be sidelined by the newly empowered Indian agent. Did You Know?Many Indigenous soldiers practiced their traditional customs and beliefs during the First World War. In the summer of 1923, he tried to rally bands in the region to protest their grievances about treaty rights to the British Crown. The Ghost of the Trenches. An old Indian recognized me, and gave me a tiny medicine-bag to protect me, saying I would shortly In 1933 the Department of Indian Affairs (DIA) changed its policies and forbade First Nation chiefs from corresponding with the DIA. in 1914, some of us landed from our vessel to gather blueberries near an Ojibwa camp. First Nation, located on the northern shores of Georgian Bay. He become an orphane at an early age and he had to be raised by the Shawanaga First Nation community. Sometimes it seemed to be hard as a rock, at other times it appeared to contain nothing. makers, demanding better treatment for Indigenous peoples. was not very healthy during his early childhood, he soon grew up to become a physically and emotionally strong young man. [4] His battalion took part in the Battle of the Somme in 1916, during which he was wounded in the left leg. of his parents. Three times awarded the Military Medal and seriously wounded, he was an expert marksman and scout, credited with killing 378 Germans and capturing 300 more. at Ypres, Francis was promoted to lance corporal in 1915. Shawanaga elder Solomon Pawis claimed that while Francis He won the After the war, he lived an active political life and championed the cause of the natives and war veterans. His second bar to the Military Medal came at the battle of The Scarpe, in 1918. Veterans Affairs Canada, Remembering Those Who Served, Francis Pegahmagabow, "A Peaceful Man". Using the much-maligned Ross rifle,[11] he was credited with killing 378 Germans and capturing 300 more. Francis Pegahmagabow MM & Two Bars, (March 9, 1891 – August 5, 1952) was the First Nations soldier most highly decorated for bravery in Canadian military history and the most effective sniper of World War I. Francis Pegahmagabow MM & two bars (/ˌpɛɡəməˈɡæboʊ/; March 9, 1891 – August 5, 1952) was the First Nations soldier most highly decorated for bravery in Canadian military history and the most effective sniper of World War I. [4], In January 1912 Pegahmagabow received financial aid for room and board to complete his education with the help of the Parry Sound Crown attorney Walter Lockwood Haight. A bronze likeness of Company Sergeant-Major (CSM) Francis Pegahmagabow was unveiled June 21, 2016 on National Aboriginal Day in Parry Sound, Ontario, just a short drive from Sgt Pegahmagabow’s birthplace at Wasauksing First Nation. Early Life Francis Pegahmagabow was an aboriginal who was born in Parry Sound, Ontario on March 9th 1889. [1] He received the Military Medal for carrying messages along the lines during these two battles. During this time, he sent letters to the prime minister and policy to arrive. While there he decorated his army tent with traditional symbols including a deer, the symbol of his clan. Chief Francis Pegahmagabow, 1889-1952; Chief Francis Pegahmagabow, 1889-1952. In 1967, Francis became a member of Canada’s Indian Hall of Fame, a display set up in Brantford , Ontario to highlight Indigenous leaders in Canadian history. [5] The Eagle was his spirit animal. Only 38 other Canadian men received the honour of two bars. [1] For these efforts he received a second Bar to his Military Medal,[1] becoming one of only 39 Canadians to receive this honour. During the fighting, Pegahmagabow's battalion was given the task of launching an attack at Passchendaele. Aboriginal soldier most highly decorated for bravery in Canadian military history and the most effective sniper of World War I Later in life, he served as chief and a councilor for the Wasauksing First Nation, and as an activist and leader in several First Nations organizations. He is a member of the Indian Hall of Fame at the Woodland Centre in Brantford, Ontario, and his memory is also commemorated on a plaque honouring him and his regiment on the Rotary and Algonquin Regiment Fitness Trail in Parry Sound. Tim Cook, At the Sharp End: Canadians Fighting the Great War 1914-1916 (2007). Earl Michael Francis Pegahmagabow ?Misquadis? Several months later, while fighting at the Battle of the Somme in 1916, Francis suffered a gunshot wound to the leg. Francis “Peggy” Pegahmagabow, Anishinaabe (Ojibwe) chief,  During the Second World War, Francis Pegahmagabow worked as a guard at a munitions plant near Nobel, Ontario, and was also a sergeant-major in the local militia. Over the course of the war, he was credited with the capture of approximately John Daly, the Indian agent at Parry Sound, alerted the federal government of Francis’ campaigning. [12] The Indian agents labelled him a "mental case" and strove to sideline him and his supporters. LAC Reference: RG 150, Accession 1992-93/166, Box 1Box 1Box 7701-23: Research Notes: Portrait of Francis Pegahmagabow held at the Canadian War Museum, as well as his traditional head dress.According to the CWM: "Following the war, Pegahmagabow became an advocate for First Nations' rights and served as Chief of his Parry Island Band, Wasauksing First Nation, from 1921 to 1925." Koennecke, Franz M.. "Francis Pegahmagabow". Francis Pegahmagabow is perhaps the best known Indigenous (Anishnaabe) soldier of the First World War. Within weeks of volunteering, Francis became one of the original members of the 1st Canadian Infantry Battalion. Francis had intense arguments with Daly and other government agents. Corporal Francis Pegahmagabow, MM Memorial Cairn Borden Simcoe County Ontario, Canada. Francis Pegahmagabow’s political career was not without controversy. He volunteered at the onset of the First World War and served overseas as a scout and sniper with the Canadian Expeditionary Force's 1st Battalion. first bar to his Military Medal during this battle. Personal Life Francis Pegahmagabow was married and had six children. His company was almost out of ammunition and in danger of being surrounded. In 1945, Francis served two terms as supreme chief of the Native Indian Government, an early also continued to defend Indigenous rights. However, he developed pneumonia shortly after the end of the Passchendaele campaign (in December 1917). Francis Pegahmagabow was born on what is now the Shawanaga First Nation reserve (of the larger Anishinabek nation) in Nobel, Ontario, on the shores of Parry Sound (see Reserves in Ontario). Francis Pegahmagabow (1891-1952) was born on March 9, 1891, an Ojibwa of the Wasauksing First Nation of Parry Island, Ontario.He was orphaned at any early age and brought up by his First Nations community. Join Facebook to connect with Francis Pegahmagabow and others you may know. Francis Pegahmagabow : biography March 9, 1891 – August 5, 1952 In 2003 the Pegahmagabow family donated his medals, and chief head dress to the Canadian War Museum where they can be seen as of 2010 as part of the World War I display. and excluded many other ethnic minorities in Canada from military service. [4] He was posted to the 23rd Canadian Regiment (Northern Pioneers). In 2003, the Pegahmagabow family donated Francis’ medals and chief headdress to the Canadian War Museum in Ottawa. of the 3rd Canadian Ranger Patrol group after him in 2006. that psychological trauma inflicted by his war experiences affected Francis’ public and private behaviour. Some members of Francis’ band also considered him difficult to work with. [5] When Francis was three years old, his father died and his mother subsequently left him to return to her home in the Henvey Inlet First Nation. I In Ojibwe his name was Binaaswi ("the wind that blows off"). Honoured by the Canadian Forces by naming the 3rd Canadian Ranger Patrol Group HQ Building at CFB Borden after him. He received his first Military Medal in 1916 for facing enemy fire to dispatch critical messages. Sexuality. with both Indian agents and members of his First Nation. [20] Canadian novelist Joseph Boyden's 2005 novel Three Day Road was inspired in part by Pegahmagabow. He died of a heart attack at the age of 61, in 1952. [12] He was re-elected in 1924 and served until he was deposed via an internal power struggle in April 1925. The bag was of skin tightly bound with a leather throng. During the First World War, Francis Pegahmagabow was awarded the Military Medal and earned two bars. 35. 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